김인창-중층형 탑파의 기원

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논문명중층형 탑파의 기원 / A Study on the Origin of the Multi-Roofed Thap
저자명김인창
발행사대한건축학회
수록사항대한건축학회논문집 계획계, v.21 n.10 (2005-10)
페이지시작페이지(179) 총페이지(8)
ISSN12269093
주제분류계획및설계
주제어불탑 ; 탑파 ; 석탑 ; 스투파 ; 솔도파 ; 부도 ; Thap ; St?pa ; Sarira ; Budo
요약1한국의 불교탑파는 여러 개의 기와지붕을 지닌 다층누각형(多層樓閣形) 목조 건축구조를 특징으로 하며, 이들의 건립 목적은 인도의 스투파(stu?pa)와 마찬가지로 석가모니 부처의 사리(舍利, s?ari?ra)를 봉안하기 위한 것으로 인식되고 있다. 하지만 인도의 스투파는 사발을 엎어놓은 듯한 복발형(覆鉢形) 무덤 구조로써 한국을 포함한 중국, 일본에서 유행한 중층형 탑파와는 구조적으로 대단히 구별된다. 본 논문에서는 중층형 탑파의 형성배경과 형성시기에 대한 기존연구를 재조명하고, 복발형 스투파와 중층형(重層形) 탑파의 차별성을 탐구하고자 하였다.
요약2The so-called Thap[塔, T?a(Ch.), To?(Jap.)] is a multi-roofed, tower-like structure. This Buddhist monument is found most characteristically in the Far Eastern countries. The multi-roofed Thap has got a special notice in their peculiar structure. It has been generally regarded as Chinese version of the domed stu?pa of Indian origin. Since the beginning of the study on the multi-roofed Thap, a number of scholars have contributed various suppositions about the origin of this structure and tried to relate it with the stu?pa of Indian origin. It was Alexander Soper who made an early notice that these two structures are ideal monument despite their distinctive features. Dietrich Seckel made a theory that the multi-roofed tower-like structure had appeared either as a result of the stylistic evolution of Indian domed stu?pa, or as a result of translating the concept of Indian stu?pa into Chinese architectural language. Lothar Ledderose made a point that the architectural shape of the multi-roofed Thap had developed after ancient Chinese architecture, Ming-t?ang(明堂), the Radiant Hall..
These theories had served as a key-stone for identifying the symbolic meaning of the multi-roofed Thap until now. However, the difference between the domed-stu?pa of Indian origin and the multi-roofed Thap is so obvious in its structure and religious function. Those Chinese watch-tower(望樓), or Ming-t?ang(明堂) do not sufficiently explain the structure and symbolism of the multi-roofed Thap.
The purpose of this paper is trying to trace out the origin of the multi-roofed Thap and its architectural function and its symbolic meaning. The earlier theory of the stylistic evolution from the stu?pa to Thap has been revaluated, and its structural shape has been traced back to the watch tower of the Han[漢] dynasty. The reason why Chinese architects looked upon the multi-roofed tower for the Buddhist stu?pa has been studied in relationship with the ancient sculptural tradition of India. This study ends with its meaning, which has been related with idolized super structure of the shrine and the stu?pa.

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